As we made our way

" As we made our way to Union Station, constructions of inferior and superior human beings disappear in the face of the biological need to relieve oneself. in that region on the same day. Write to Abigail Abrams at abigail.

persisted.alter@time.The Coalition of United Political Parties (CUPP) has made claims concerning President Muhammadu Buhari’s trip to China and as well as the Permanent Voter Cards (PVCs). in which he outlined his key policies for a fourth term, Its a community-wide experience. And I think next year it’s really going to blow up. targeting demographics and total ad spend by election advertisers. Appleton is in charge of first-team affairs at the King Power Stadium while the Srivaddhanaprabha family search for the team’s third manager in just eight months. Andrew Kelly—EPA A man crosses the street during a snow storm in New York City on Jan. Mass.

the San Bernardino attack, Our Administration will be a friend to all moderate Muslim reformers in the Middle East, We therefore call upon you to use your good offices to do or cause to be done the following: (a) Direct the transfer of the case from his worship,com. Shogunle; NCI, Ogar said, as Prince Harry revealed that he proposed to Meghan Markle while roasting a chicken. on the arterial route collapsed amid heavy rains at 7:30am. buy time, develop other options and resources and sometimes actually resolve.the situation" he observed "Theres an interesting distinction" that the US government makes said New America International Security Program Director Peter Bergen who moderated the discussion and has worked extensively in countries where high-profile abductions have occurred "They say we will negotiate but we wont make concessions which I think is largely a distinction without a difference because what negotiation begins with the idea were not going to give you anything That doesnt seem like much of a negotiating position" If he were making recommendations to the President about how to change government policy Noesner said he would suggest tamping down the rhetoric of "no negotiation with terrorists" and supporting (with information and resources) the efforts of families and companies to negotiate Debra Tice the mother of Austin Tice an American journalist who has been missing in Syria since 2012 agreed with Noesners assessment "We should not let our desire to punish terrorist kidnappers cloud our judgment and restrict our options" Tice declared "I am known as the mother of a hostage" she said whose life is now defined by "determining who is holding my son and how to bring him safely home" Tice and her husband have worked tirelessly since 2012 with American and foreign governments journalists and groups like Reporters Without Borders in their quest to recover Austin safely And yet said Tice until news of the Presidents hostage policy review became public in November she and her family were completely unaware that such a policy even existed "Though it has informed every moment of our lives for the past 966 days" Tice marveled "we still have never seen this policy because it is a classified presidential directive and we do not have clearance" She cited a senior government official (who also reportedly threatened family members with prosecution if they negotiated with and paid a ransom to ISIS) who told them that getting the necessary security clearance to review the policy and get further information about their son would cost over $100000 and take more than 15 months "What we have not been able to overcome are the twin obstacles of protocol and culture" within the government More than anything else said Tice "every hostage situation is unique" and requires "a desire to be creative a desire to be flexible" when determining courses of action She believes such an outcome can only occur if the President creates an entirely new policy that allows for a "thoughtful and measured response" on a case-by-case basis Drawing upon the knowledge gathered during her familys ordeal Tice recommended that any new policy require the President to designate a "single point of accountability" such as an interagency hostage recovery coordinator whose "singular mission [is] securing the soonest and safest return of the hostage" Tices suggestion seemed to resonate with Barak Barfi a journalist and New America research fellow who served as spokesman for the family of Steven Sotloff Barfi noted that he had seen firsthand how bureaucracy and a "lack of cultural understanding" about the region became barriers to forward progress in Sotloffs case Barfi also spoke to the role of intermediaries in hostage situation which Noesner emphasized is "very critical particularly when were talking about the jihadi groups" Barfi who acted as a go-between for the Sotloff family was acutely aware that as a journalist he lacked the access and relationships that an intermediary from the intelligence community might bring to the table Journalists do however play pivotal roles in bringing information to light in exactly the places where Americans are most likely to fall victim to kidnapping– the “dysfunctional countries” (as Noesner called them) where violence and chaos are a daily reality "By definition journalists [like NGO and aid personnel] are going to be in dangerous places" noted Bergen So how should we address the commonly-held but controversial view that Americans like Austin Tice who travel to risky parts of the world like Syria should somehow have expected what happened to them Tice quietly acknowledged that she receives emails to that effect: "Free country your son made a choice not my problem" Noesner categorically dismissed this view pointing out no matter what may have precipitated the kidnapping all Americansfrom a drunk businessman to a deserting soldierdeserve their governments best efforts to get them out even if they face prosecution or consequences after their safe return In describing Austin and his decision to travel to Syria Debra Tice said of her son a former Marine and law student: he has "always been interested in the big wide world" Barfi squeezed her hand as he described Austins efforts to provide "very crucial information" during an important time of upheaval in Syria in 2012 Because the US intelligence community did not have appropriate assets in place said Barfi "it was people like Austin who were getting that [information] He was doing a great service to his country and we have to do everything we can to get him out" Jane Greenway Carr is an ACLS Public Fellow and Contributing Editor at New America This piece was originally published in New Americas digital magazineThe Weekly Wonk Sign up to get it delivered to your inbox each Thursday here and follow @New America on Twitter More from New America: Contact us at editors@timecom IDEAS TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices providing commentary on events in news society and culture We welcome outside contributions Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editorsMelbourne:WorldNo 1 Simona Halep overcame a nervous start to batter sixth seed Karolina Pliskova into submission in their Australian Open quarter-final on Wednesday The Romanian reeled off nine games in a row and 12 of the last 14 games to recover from 0-3 en route to a 6-3 6-2 victory 1 hour 11 minutes on Rod Laver Arena "It’s really nice to be in the semis" said Halep after moving into the last four at Melbourne Park for the first time where she will face 2016 champion Angelique Kerber Simona Halep celebrates after defeating Karolina Pliskova the quarter-final AP Halep had taken three sets to beat Pliskova in their previous meeting a semi-final at Roland Garros last year and started shakily struggling to time her serve or groundstrokes But once she saved a break point at 0-3 to get on the scoreboard her confidence grew against an opponent who has never gone beyond the last eight in Melbourne "For sure it wasn’t my best start but I knew I had to restart after three games to stop missing and move better" said Halep whose relentless chasing and powerful groundstrokes overwhelmed her talleropponent "I started to open the court and play my style and I served well today Everything went pretty much my way" added Halep who showed no fitness concerns after carrying a painful ankle throughout the tournament She moved smoothly and freely throughout and will be glad to have got off court so quickly The Romanian had confessed to being "aching everywhere" after being taken to 15-13 in the third set of a marathon third-round match against Lauren Davis Pliskova was the top-rated server on the WTA Tour in 2017 but it took her until the sixth game of the second set to record her first ace A second followed on the next point but the match was already gone and Halep moved into her an enticing clash against former number one Kerber Kerber seeded 21 is in form and will return to the world’s top 10 on the back of a 14-match winning streak in Australia Earlier the German enjoyed a similarly dominant romp past last year’s US Open finalist Madison Keys 6-1 6-2 "For sure Kerber is going to be different" said Halep "She’s moving pretty well and returning the ball very strong and many on the court "I have to be ready in my legs and be calm I have to dominate the match and try to finish the point Just try to play my best" With John Preskill (left) and Kip Thorne (middle) Stephen Hawking (right) wrestled with a black hole paradox Caltech Archives Hawking’s final quest: saving quantum theory from black holes By Adrian ChoMar 20 2018 5:45 PM When Albert Einstein died in 1955 he had spent decades on a lonely quixotic quest: to derive a theory of everything that would unify gravity and electromagnetism—even though physicists discovered new nuclear forces as he worked Stephen Hawking the great British physicist who died last week at age 76 also worked until the end But he focused on perhaps the most important problem in his area of physics one his own work had posed: How do black holes preserve information encoded in the material that falls into them “He was clearly working on this big loose end which really represents a profound crisis for physics” says Steven Giddings a quantum physicist at the University of California Santa Barbara In a final bid to solve it Hawking and two colleagues proposed a way for information to end up scribbled on a black hole’s inscrutable verge although others are skeptical A black hole is the gravitational field that remains when a star collapses under its own gravity to an infinitesimal point Within a certain distance from the point—at the black hole’s event horizon—gravity grows so strong that not even light can escape Or so theorists once assumed Thanks to quantum uncertainty the vacuum roils with particle-antiparticle pairs flitting in and out of existence too fast to detect directly At the event horizon Hawking realized in 1974 one particle in a pair can fall into the black hole while the other escapes As the black hole radiates such particles it loses energy and mass until it evaporates completely Such “Hawking radiation” is too feeble to observe but few scientists doubt its existence But Hawking’s signature insight led to a troubling conclusion Imagine throwing a dictionary into a black hole that then evaporates Because the emerging Hawking radiation is presumably random the information in the dictionary shouldn’t come back out with it Such information loss would wreck quantum mechanics which requires that the “wave function” that describes any system—be it the dictionary or the universe—evolve in a predictable way That can’t happen if information is lost If allowed for black holes such information loss would spread through quantum physics like a cancer researchers say spoiling things like energy conservation Hawking thought at first that the problem would be solved by changing quantum theory In 1997 he and Kip Thorne a gravitational theorist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena entered a wager with John Preskill also a Caltech theorist Hawking and Thorne stuck to their position that black holes destroy information By 2004 however Hawking changed his mind and conceded the bet He gave Preskill a baseball encyclopedia—from which arcane information could be recovered at will Hawking spent much of his later years trying to figure out how a black hole could regurgitate information—although he also worked on theories of what triggered the big bang Three years ago he began his last work on black holes with Malcolm Perry a theoretical physicist and Hawking’s colleague at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom and Andrew Strominger a theorist at Harvard University “It was only 2 weeks ago that I saw him” Perry says “He certainly wasn’t in the best shape but his mind was clearly focused on the problem” In a pair of recent papers the scientists attack a pillar of black hole theory called the no-hair theorem It is widely interpreted to mean that just three parameters—mass spin and electric charge the last presumably zero—suffice to describe a black hole Like bald pates black holes of similar masses and spins then have no details—no “hair”—to distinguish them as American theorist John Archibald Wheeler quipped That sameness implies a black hole keeps no record of whether say it swallowed the play King Lear or the movie King Kong But strictly speaking Strominger says the theorem states only that two similar black holes can be “transformed” into each other by a handful of mathematical relations called diffeomorphisms which relabel the coordinates of space-time An infinite family of other diffeomorphisms has been neglected for decades he says They imply that a black hole’s event horizon might be bedecked with an infinity of charges a bit like electric charges The charges could distinguish one black hole from another and encode infalling information Strominger says “We’re cautiously optimistic about this idea” he says “Stephen was very optimistic” However the charges may not encode enough information or may not do so in a unique way Giddings cautions One theorist who requested anonymity out of respect for Hawking says his various solutions for the black hole information problem pale next to his best work Hawking’s latest work also misses a bigger issue the theorist says If a black hole preserves information he argues then an unavoidable conclusion of Einstein’s theory of gravity—that there’s no way to tell if you’re falling into a huge black hole—must be wrong Others credit Hawking for working on important problems in spite of the degenerative nerve disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that led to his use of a wheelchair and eventually rendered him able to speak only through a computerized voice synthesizer Ironically Hawking’s disability may have helped him avoid the isolation that enveloped Einstein says Marika Taylor a theoretical physicist at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom who from 1995 to 1998 was Hawking’s graduate student Hawking had to rely on collaborators to flesh out his ideas she says and so remained deeply connected to his peers “Without stepping on the toes of his actual family” Taylor says “his physics family was incredibly important to him” Stephen Hawking betting man By Daniel Clery Famously playful Stephen Hawking left a trail of light-hearted bets about serious scientific questions In the best known he wagered that information falling into a black hole is lost forever; he later changed his mind and conceded the bet That wasn’t his first loss In a high-profile bet in the early 1970s he claimed that black holes themselves—the subject of so much of his life’s work—did not exist At the time the best candidate for a black hole was Cygnus X-1 one of the strongest x-ray sources in the sky centered on a supergiant star Theorists suspected an unseen orbiting companion was sucking in material from the star creating a superhot accretion disk blazing with x-rays Astronomers could calculate the companion’s orbit and infer its minimum mass: six times that of our sun Theory suggested it had to be a black hole but other remote possibilities remained Hawking bet another theorist Kip Thorne of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena that Cygnus X-1 was not a black hole with the prize being a magazine subscription Hawking explained in his 1988 bestseller A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes that the bet was a sort of “insurance policy” for him “I have done a lot of work on black holes and it would all be wasted if it turned out that black holes do not exist But in that case I would have the consolation of winning my bet which would bring me 4 years of the magazine Private Eye” he wrote But a few years later even though astronomers were still not certain that Cygnus X-1 was a black hole Hawking conceded Thorne wrote in his 1994 book Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy “Late one night in June 1990 … Stephen and an entourage of family nurses and friends broke into my office at Caltech found the framed bet and wrote a concessionary note on it with validation by Stephen’s thumbprint” That loss did little to dent Hawking’s enthusiasm for a wager Just a year later he bet that a theoretical object called a naked singularity can’t exist A singularity is a point where the gravitational field becomes infinite Every black hole should contain one hiding behind its event horizon Thorne and his Caltech colleague John Preskill believed an exposed singularity without an event horizon could also exist; Hawking considered that “an anathema … prohibited by the laws of classical physics” The loser would pay up in clothing to cover nakedness In 1997 Hawking conceded the bet “on a technicality” Preskill says The same day he framed a new version: that a naked singularity can never form under “generic” conditions That bet remains unresolved A few years later Hawking entered the game again with a contrarian bet The long-sought Higgs boson was hailed as the last missing piece of the Standard Model of particle physics Hawking was not keen to see it discovered He worried that it would simply cement the Standard Model without pointing the way to a more coherent theory As a result in the early 2000s he bet Gordon Kane a particle physicist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor that the particle would not be found When the Higgs was confirmed in July 2012 Hawking hailed it as an “important result” and said Peter Higgs who had proposed the particle 48 years earlier should receive a Nobel Prize (as he did the next year) But Hawking said “It’s a pity in a way because the greatest advances in physics have come from experiments that gave results we didn’t expect” He then added “It seems I have just lost $100”

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